Final reprint of a comment written elsewhere, finishing this thing up will require a renewed effort of will.
Okay, time to resume the circus.
A number refers to a quantity of objects, perceived by the senses and conceived as ideas within the mind, which are separable and interchangeable (as explained previously).
A brain operated by a mind is like a physical computer operated by a person (an end user). I will continue to abuse this analogy shamelessly, because I’m so proud of myself for thinking of it. I will still be proud after someone points out that this analogy has obviously been done before, and done better, because I am analogous to a child showing off the paintings I brushed with my fingers.
Now I have to talk about units of measure. Google says these are “a quantity chosen as a standard in terms of which other quantities may be expressed.” For this, I’ll extend Porky’s excellent example of mass (and gravitons, or lack thereof).
In classical mechanics, a mass is defined independently of gravity, and in tandem with “net force”. Mass is “the property of an object that resists acceleration due to a force”. Force is “that which produces acceleration in an object with mass”. In the simplest case, we measure “mass” on a balanced scale, using counterweights. These counterweights represent units of mass. The unit itself is the (standardized, agreed-upon) quantity of the property, mass, that is common between two evenly balanced counterweights.