I’d like to take a stab at answering the question “How do Jews argue, in your opinion?”
In my opinion, a “Jew” will argue more like a lawyer. This is a sweeping generalization which I’ll disambiguate somewhat.
It seems to hold for the following values of “Jew”: ethnic Ashkenazi, practicing religious Orthodox, and anyone schooled in the Jesuit tradition (or similar). It does not hold for converts to Atheism or Christianity (Protestantism particularly, do Jews ever convert to Catholicism?), and I don’t think I’ve ever known any ethnic Sephardi (or any non-European Jews, for that matter).
The characterization “like a lawyer” seems to be true for many different connotations. It can mean formal and “legalistic”, either as a compliment for conscientiousness adherence to rules, or as an insult to mean this trait is taken to absurd excesses. It often means abstract precision, perhaps to the exclusion of common sense, which can be good if the reasoning ends in a correct conclusion (as often in abstract maths using complex numbers), and absurd otherwise. It can also be unabashedly insulting in the sense that lawyers are often unscrupulous rhetoricians, which also seems to be over-represented amongst the Jewish groups mentioned above.
Like many stereotypes these tendencies are overemphasized- for instance, Africans are not universally dumb. The Nigerian American phenomenon alone demonstrates many Africans are extremely bright. But the African mean IQ is still significantly lower than the European mean IQ.