Conscientiousness is defined in Aeolitalk as the tendency to conform to a standard or “norm” of behavior. It is not necessarily a conscious decision, and the standard of behavior could be explicit (e.g. a military code of conduct) or implicit (e.g. fostering the “spirit” of a warrior).
We also have (at least) two forms of conscientiousness, which I’ll describe here as “extraverted conscientiousness” and “introverted conscientiousness” that can cause a person to adhere more seriously to an ideology (to the point of fanaticism). An extraverted conscientious person feels anxiety if other people think they are a hypocrite (that is, their moral compass is predominantly social), and an introverted conscientious person feels anxiety if their inner-focused conscience finds a contradiction in their actions and beliefs. The terms “extremist” and “fanatic” loosely fit the extremes of these traits, respectively. An extremist considers himself to be on the extreme high end of civic responsibility (“morality” = mores) and a fanatic considers himself to be on the extreme high end of ethical responsibility.
Generally these motivations are at odds because the social moral compass often is short-sighted and therefore lacks internal system coherence, which is the driver of the internal compass. The internal compass is more likely to be at odds with external reality, whether social or physical or both, because it is relatively unconcerned with the results of actions (focusing instead on intent).
So we have two axes, explicit/implicit and external/internal. Here are examples of norms for each combination:
Explicit, external: Code of conduct, formal etiquette
Implicit, external: Social mores, esoteric aspects of religion
Explicit, internal: Philosophical ethics, personal codes, internalized religious codes
Implicit, internal: Conscience, Budo, Daoism
These are each enforced with various sorts of punishments:
Explicit, external: Fines, corporal punishment, imprisonment, territorial violence
Implicit, external: Shame, ostracization, unofficial behavioral correcting violence
Explicit, internal: Distracting “conflicted” feelings, confusion
Implicit, internal: Guilt, “pangs of conscience”
Conformity is also rewarded with different sorts of feelings:
Explicit, external: Social prestige, personal pride
Implicit, external: Social dominance, personal superiority
Explicit, internal: Confident sense of purpose, motive, and direction
Implicit, internal: Self-righteousness, feeling “pure”