Here’s how I’d speculatively rank the arts and sciences in terms of potential cultural impact, and how long it takes for the culture to absorb the consequences of their insights. For example, calculus was released into the wild circa 1675 in a condensed form, had the largest possible impact for a mathematical theory, and after Cauchy and Riemann 200 years later there wasn’t much left to say about it.
Poetry ~ 500 years
Philosophy ~ 250 years
Math ~ 200 years
Art ~ 150 years
Science ~ 100 years
Engineering ~ 50 years
Each art and science appears to have the same sort of life trajectory, very roughly like a bell curve with a peak at the midway point. New ideas in engineering (the transistor, for example) experience their heyday within about 25 years and then taper off for another 25 years until there are very few derivative innovations left to invent.
The IQ barriers to entry tend to be higher in the lower sciences, because more people can discriminate between good/bad engineering than between good/bad poetry, but I’d argue that the higher sciences require higher intelligence to maximize their potential impact. For example, Goethe > Descartes > Newton > Nietzshe (I classify him as an artist) > Darwin > Ford.
The most impactful poets in Western civilization, in my opinion, defined approximately 500-year epochs in our history: Homer, Virgil, Dante, Milton, and Goethe. They appear to have done this by defining morality and altering foundational myths for their cultures by communicating epistemological insights straight to the superego through subconscious archetypal forms. According to this theory we are approaching maximum Faust roundabout mid-21st century.